The Benefit and Efficacy of a Therapeutic Program for Attention Deficit Disorder

Article Information

Barbara C. Fisher* and Danielle Szokola

United Psychological Services, Michiga, USA

*Corresponding Author: Barbara C. Fisher, United Psychological Services, 47818 Van Dyke, Shelby Charter Township, MI 48317, USA, Tel: 5863233620; Fax: 5863233568;

Received: 02 June 2017; Accepted: 08 June 2017; Published: 15 June 2017

Share at Facebook


The effectiveness of a therapy program for Attention Deficit Disorder (Interactive Metronome that we use as an individually designed program) to remediate attention deficits at a private clinic was assessed. Neuropsychological evaluation was administered prior to intervention to establish the diagnosis and following therapeutic intervention to ascertain the benefit of the program. Specific neurocognitive testing provides the separation of a genetic attention disorder from attention subsequent to other diagnoses, as well as the necessary information to determine the exact treatment plan that will benefit the patient in an outpatient clinic setting. Results were compared.


Therapy, Attention deficit disorder, Medication, Interactive metronome

Therapy articles Therapy Research articles Therapy review articles Therapy PubMed articles Therapy PubMed Central articles Therapy 2023 articles Therapy 2024 articles Therapy Scopus articles Therapy impact factor journals Therapy Scopus journals Therapy PubMed journals Therapy medical journals Therapy free journals Therapy best journals Therapy top journals Therapy free medical journals Therapy famous journals Therapy Google Scholar indexed journals Attention deficit disorder articles Attention deficit disorder Research articles Attention deficit disorder review articles Attention deficit disorder PubMed articles Attention deficit disorder PubMed Central articles Attention deficit disorder 2023 articles Attention deficit disorder 2024 articles Attention deficit disorder Scopus articles Attention deficit disorder impact factor journals Attention deficit disorder Scopus journals Attention deficit disorder PubMed journals Attention deficit disorder medical journals Attention deficit disorder free journals Attention deficit disorder best journals Attention deficit disorder top journals Attention deficit disorder free medical journals Attention deficit disorder famous journals Attention deficit disorder Google Scholar indexed journals Medication articles Medication Research articles Medication review articles Medication PubMed articles Medication PubMed Central articles Medication 2023 articles Medication 2024 articles Medication Scopus articles Medication impact factor journals Medication Scopus journals Medication PubMed journals Medication medical journals Medication free journals Medication best journals Medication top journals Medication free medical journals Medication famous journals Medication Google Scholar indexed journals Interactive metronome articles Interactive metronome Research articles Interactive metronome review articles Interactive metronome PubMed articles Interactive metronome PubMed Central articles Interactive metronome 2023 articles Interactive metronome 2024 articles Interactive metronome Scopus articles Interactive metronome impact factor journals Interactive metronome Scopus journals Interactive metronome PubMed journals Interactive metronome medical journals Interactive metronome free journals Interactive metronome best journals Interactive metronome top journals Interactive metronome free medical journals Interactive metronome famous journals Interactive metronome Google Scholar indexed journals Neuropsychological evaluation articles Neuropsychological evaluation Research articles Neuropsychological evaluation review articles Neuropsychological evaluation PubMed articles Neuropsychological evaluation PubMed Central articles Neuropsychological evaluation 2023 articles Neuropsychological evaluation 2024 articles Neuropsychological evaluation Scopus articles Neuropsychological evaluation impact factor journals Neuropsychological evaluation Scopus journals Neuropsychological evaluation PubMed journals Neuropsychological evaluation medical journals Neuropsychological evaluation free journals Neuropsychological evaluation best journals Neuropsychological evaluation top journals Neuropsychological evaluation free medical journals Neuropsychological evaluation famous journals Neuropsychological evaluation Google Scholar indexed journals therapeutic intervention articles therapeutic intervention Research articles therapeutic intervention review articles therapeutic intervention PubMed articles therapeutic intervention PubMed Central articles therapeutic intervention 2023 articles therapeutic intervention 2024 articles therapeutic intervention Scopus articles therapeutic intervention impact factor journals therapeutic intervention Scopus journals therapeutic intervention PubMed journals therapeutic intervention medical journals therapeutic intervention free journals therapeutic intervention best journals therapeutic intervention top journals therapeutic intervention free medical journals therapeutic intervention famous journals therapeutic intervention Google Scholar indexed journals Medication articles Medication Research articles Medication review articles Medication PubMed articles Medication PubMed Central articles Medication 2023 articles Medication 2024 articles Medication Scopus articles Medication impact factor journals Medication Scopus journals Medication PubMed journals Medication medical journals Medication free journals Medication best journals Medication top journals Medication free medical journals Medication famous journals Medication Google Scholar indexed journals neurocognitive tests articles neurocognitive tests Research articles neurocognitive tests review articles neurocognitive tests PubMed articles neurocognitive tests PubMed Central articles neurocognitive tests 2023 articles neurocognitive tests 2024 articles neurocognitive tests Scopus articles neurocognitive tests impact factor journals neurocognitive tests Scopus journals neurocognitive tests PubMed journals neurocognitive tests medical journals neurocognitive tests free journals neurocognitive tests best journals neurocognitive tests top journals neurocognitive tests free medical journals neurocognitive tests famous journals neurocognitive tests Google Scholar indexed journals distractibility articles distractibility Research articles distractibility review articles distractibility PubMed articles distractibility PubMed Central articles distractibility 2023 articles distractibility 2024 articles distractibility Scopus articles distractibility impact factor journals distractibility Scopus journals distractibility PubMed journals distractibility medical journals distractibility free journals distractibility best journals distractibility top journals distractibility free medical journals distractibility famous journals distractibility Google Scholar indexed journals good sleep hygiene articles good sleep hygiene Research articles good sleep hygiene review articles good sleep hygiene PubMed articles good sleep hygiene PubMed Central articles good sleep hygiene 2023 articles good sleep hygiene 2024 articles good sleep hygiene Scopus articles good sleep hygiene impact factor journals good sleep hygiene Scopus journals good sleep hygiene PubMed journals good sleep hygiene medical journals good sleep hygiene free journals good sleep hygiene best journals good sleep hygiene top journals good sleep hygiene free medical journals good sleep hygiene famous journals good sleep hygiene Google Scholar indexed journals

Article Details


Research has identified positive effects of the use of Interactive Metronome (IM) for an ADHD population. Significant differences were found for boys between pre and posttreatment factors on performance in areas of attention, motor control, language processing, reading and parental report of improvement in regulation of aggressive behavior. Medication has typically been used for treatment of ADD/ADHD, however medication management tends to only treat symptoms topically, alleviating the symptoms temporarily. Medication side effects suggest that long term usage is not an effective management strategy. Consequently, the search is for an effective program to manage the symptoms of ADD/ADHD over the long term [1].


Adults and children were referred for the assessment of attention deficits and diagnosed with ADHD (age 9 to 67 years, n= 31). Individuals were diagnosed with ADHD Inattentive Type with a specific test battery of neurocognitive tests used for almost thirty years to document a genetic attention disorder (twenty years of testing published with the same measures to rule in or rule out a genetic attention disorder). Re-administration of specific tests was completed following treatment: The Stroop Color-Word Test, Symbol Digits Modalities Test (written and oral), Trail Making Test A, Symbol Search and PASAT [2].

Treatment involved the use of a specific program (Interactive Metronome) modified for this facility. The therapy requires the individual to meet specific criteria for moving parts of their body in precision timing and to do so in a fluid manner. When individuals meet specific criteria for each of the exercises, the program is deemed therapeutically completed. We have set the criteria lower than typically suggested for the program given initial test results which revealed positive test findings with a more rigorous criteria. Evaluation occurs approximately one month after completing the program [3].

IM has been used as part of a therapeutic program combined at this facility with cognitive behavioral treatment addressing emotional symptoms as well as specific goals of structure, organization, good sleep hygiene, improving study habits and motivation. Treatment consists of approximately 25 to 30 therapy sessions of approximately 60 minutes in length, necessary to see differences in behavior, as well as the IM scores in a sufficiently successful manner to end treatment. The time frame can range from three months to six months depending upon the frequency of the visits [4].


Areas of distractibility, speeded processing and information processing improved following treatment. Paired samples t-tests revealed significant differences between pre and post treatment scores on the Stroop test (p=0.06), SDMT-W (p=0.002), SDMT-O (p=0.000), Trails A (p=0.012), Symbol Search (p=0.000), PASAT trial 1 (p=0.005), PASAT trial 2 (p=0.007) and PASAT trial 3 (p=0.002).


Findings indicate that primary attention deficit areas, assessed prior to and following attention treatment, evidenced improvement; distractibility, speeded processing and information processing. The therapeutic program utilized in a therapeutic context appears to be effective in remediating attention deficits in a clinical population.
A limitation to this study is that it was completed in a clinical population that did not allow for an experimental group who received alternative training or no training at all.


  1. Shaffer RJ, Jacokes LE, Cassily JF, et al. Effect of interactive metronome training on children with ADHD, American Journal of Occupational Therapy 55 (2001): 155-162.
  2. Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, et al. Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain inducted by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate, American Journal of Psychiatry 155 (1998): 1325-1331.
  3. Samuels JA, Franco K, Wan F, et al. Effect of stimulants on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in children with ADHD; a double blind randomized cross over trial, Pediatric Nephrology 21 (2006): 92-95.
  4. Fisher BC, Garges DM, Yoon SY, et al. Sex Differences And The Interaction Of Age And Sleep Issues In Neuropsychological Testing Performance Across The Lifespan In An ADD/ADHD Sample From The Years 1989 To 2009, Psychological Reports 114 (2014): 404-438.

© 2016-2024, Copyrights Fortune Journals. All Rights Reserved