Prevalence and Associated Factors of Low Back Pain among the Staffs of a Pharmaceutical Company of Dhaka City

Article Information

Kamal T1*, Sarker S2, Dina NA3, Sharmin S4

1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dhanmondi Diagnostic and Consultation Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh

2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, MH Samorita Hospital and Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Shaheed Monsur Ali Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh

4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Healthcare Network, Dhaka, Bangladesh

*Corresponding Author: Dr. Tahmeed Kamal, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Dhanmondi diagnostic and consultation centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Received: 05 January 2023; Accepted: 22 January 2023; Published: 27 January 2023


Kamal T, Sarker S, Dina NA, Sharmin S. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Low Back Pain among the Staffs of a Pharmaceutical Company of Dhaka City. Journal of Orthopedics and Sports Medicine 5 (2023): 20-24.

Share at Facebook


Background: Low Back Pain has been shown to be an important health and socio-economic problem of occupational diseases, which plague a large segment of the population in industrialized countries. Reviews of the literature describing LBP point prevalence in the developed world have produced variable of prevalence rates. Low back pain is common in Bangladesh also, responsible for an enormous burden of chronic disease, so this study aimed to disseminate the findings to take necessary steps to minimize low back pain and reduce the costs and injuries associated with ergonomic hazards of workers.

Objective: To identify the prevalence and factors associated with low back pain among the stuffs of a pharmaceutical company of Dhaka city.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in General Pharmaceutical Company in Mohammadpur, Dhaka. The study was carried out of Pharmaceutical Company in Mohammadpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The duration of the period from 10th October 2019 to 10th January 2020. Randomly interview was done by standard questionnaire containing extremely simple and well-structured question.

Results: Total 349 sample was collected from General pharmaceutical company in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The result of this study showed that the prevalence of low back pain is 45.3% among the staff of this pharmaceutical company. Regarding sex, females have recorded 51.2% of those suffering from back pain. Factors such as socio-economic factors, family factors, body mass index, physical factors, psychological factors, medical history and sleeping disturbance were associated with the prevalence of LBP among stuffs of pharmaceutical company.

Conclusion: Preventive strategies such as maintaining weight, fairness o


Low Back Pain; Risk factor; Prevalence; Pharmaceutical staff

Low back pain articles Low back pain Research articles Low back pain review articles Low back pain PubMed articles Low back pain PubMed Central articles Low back pain 2023 articles Low back pain 2024 articles Low back pain Scopus articles Low back pain impact factor journals Low back pain Scopus journals Low back pain PubMed journals Low back pain medical journals Low back pain free journals Low back pain best journals Low back pain top journals Low back pain free medical journals Low back pain famous journals Low back pain Google Scholar indexed journals Pharmaceutical articles Pharmaceutical Research articles Pharmaceutical review articles Pharmaceutical PubMed articles Pharmaceutical PubMed Central articles Pharmaceutical 2023 articles Pharmaceutical 2024 articles Pharmaceutical Scopus articles Pharmaceutical impact factor journals Pharmaceutical Scopus journals Pharmaceutical PubMed journals Pharmaceutical medical journals Pharmaceutical free journals Pharmaceutical best journals Pharmaceutical top journals Pharmaceutical free medical journals Pharmaceutical famous journals Pharmaceutical Google Scholar indexed journals Physical medicine articles Physical medicine Research articles Physical medicine review articles Physical medicine PubMed articles Physical medicine PubMed Central articles Physical medicine 2023 articles Physical medicine 2024 articles Physical medicine Scopus articles Physical medicine impact factor journals Physical medicine Scopus journals Physical medicine PubMed journals Physical medicine medical journals Physical medicine free journals Physical medicine best journals Physical medicine top journals Physical medicine free medical journals Physical medicine famous journals Physical medicine Google Scholar indexed journals Rehabilitation articles Rehabilitation Research articles Rehabilitation review articles Rehabilitation PubMed articles Rehabilitation PubMed Central articles Rehabilitation 2023 articles Rehabilitation 2024 articles Rehabilitation Scopus articles Rehabilitation impact factor journals Rehabilitation Scopus journals Rehabilitation PubMed journals Rehabilitation medical journals Rehabilitation free journals Rehabilitation best journals Rehabilitation top journals Rehabilitation free medical journals Rehabilitation famous journals Rehabilitation Google Scholar indexed journals Muscle strain articles Muscle strain Research articles Muscle strain review articles Muscle strain PubMed articles Muscle strain PubMed Central articles Muscle strain 2023 articles Muscle strain 2024 articles Muscle strain Scopus articles Muscle strain impact factor journals Muscle strain Scopus journals Muscle strain PubMed journals Muscle strain medical journals Muscle strain free journals Muscle strain best journals Muscle strain top journals Muscle strain free medical journals Muscle strain famous journals Muscle strain Google Scholar indexed journals Vertebral compression fractures articles Vertebral compression fractures Research articles Vertebral compression fractures review articles Vertebral compression fractures PubMed articles Vertebral compression fractures PubMed Central articles Vertebral compression fractures 2023 articles Vertebral compression fractures 2024 articles Vertebral compression fractures Scopus articles Vertebral compression fractures impact factor journals Vertebral compression fractures Scopus journals Vertebral compression fractures PubMed journals Vertebral compression fractures medical journals Vertebral compression fractures free journals Vertebral compression fractures best journals Vertebral compression fractures top journals Vertebral compression fractures free medical journals Vertebral compression fractures famous journals Vertebral compression fractures Google Scholar indexed journals Spinal stenosis articles Spinal stenosis Research articles Spinal stenosis review articles Spinal stenosis PubMed articles Spinal stenosis PubMed Central articles Spinal stenosis 2023 articles Spinal stenosis 2024 articles Spinal stenosis Scopus articles Spinal stenosis impact factor journals Spinal stenosis Scopus journals Spinal stenosis PubMed journals Spinal stenosis medical journals Spinal stenosis free journals Spinal stenosis best journals Spinal stenosis top journals Spinal stenosis free medical journals Spinal stenosis famous journals Spinal stenosis Google Scholar indexed journals Disc injuries articles Disc injuries Research articles Disc injuries review articles Disc injuries PubMed articles Disc injuries PubMed Central articles Disc injuries 2023 articles Disc injuries 2024 articles Disc injuries Scopus articles Disc injuries impact factor journals Disc injuries Scopus journals Disc injuries PubMed journals Disc injuries medical journals Disc injuries free journals Disc injuries best journals Disc injuries top journals Disc injuries free medical journals Disc injuries famous journals Disc injuries Google Scholar indexed journals Spondylosis articles Spondylosis Research articles Spondylosis review articles Spondylosis PubMed articles Spondylosis PubMed Central articles Spondylosis 2023 articles Spondylosis 2024 articles Spondylosis Scopus articles Spondylosis impact factor journals Spondylosis Scopus journals Spondylosis PubMed journals Spondylosis medical journals Spondylosis free journals Spondylosis best journals Spondylosis top journals Spondylosis free medical journals Spondylosis famous journals Spondylosis Google Scholar indexed journals Spondylolisthesis articles Spondylolisthesis Research articles Spondylolisthesis review articles Spondylolisthesis PubMed articles Spondylolisthesis PubMed Central articles Spondylolisthesis 2023 articles Spondylolisthesis 2024 articles Spondylolisthesis Scopus articles Spondylolisthesis impact factor journals Spondylolisthesis Scopus journals Spondylolisthesis PubMed journals Spondylolisthesis medical journals Spondylolisthesis free journals Spondylolisthesis best journals Spondylolisthesis top journals Spondylolisthesis free medical journals Spondylolisthesis famous journals Spondylolisthesis Google Scholar indexed journals Musculoskeletal articles Musculoskeletal Research articles Musculoskeletal review articles Musculoskeletal PubMed articles Musculoskeletal PubMed Central articles Musculoskeletal 2023 articles Musculoskeletal 2024 articles Musculoskeletal Scopus articles Musculoskeletal impact factor journals Musculoskeletal Scopus journals Musculoskeletal PubMed journals Musculoskeletal medical journals Musculoskeletal free journals Musculoskeletal best journals Musculoskeletal top journals Musculoskeletal free medical journals Musculoskeletal famous journals Musculoskeletal Google Scholar indexed journals Lumbar spine articles Lumbar spine Research articles Lumbar spine review articles Lumbar spine PubMed articles Lumbar spine PubMed Central articles Lumbar spine 2023 articles Lumbar spine 2024 articles Lumbar spine Scopus articles Lumbar spine impact factor journals Lumbar spine Scopus journals Lumbar spine PubMed journals Lumbar spine medical journals Lumbar spine free journals Lumbar spine best journals Lumbar spine top journals Lumbar spine free medical journals Lumbar spine famous journals Lumbar spine Google Scholar indexed journals Overweight articles Overweight Research articles Overweight review articles Overweight PubMed articles Overweight PubMed Central articles Overweight 2023 articles Overweight 2024 articles Overweight Scopus articles Overweight impact factor journals Overweight Scopus journals Overweight PubMed journals Overweight medical journals Overweight free journals Overweight best journals Overweight top journals Overweight free medical journals Overweight famous journals Overweight Google Scholar indexed journals Loss of muscle articles Loss of muscle Research articles Loss of muscle review articles Loss of muscle PubMed articles Loss of muscle PubMed Central articles Loss of muscle 2023 articles Loss of muscle 2024 articles Loss of muscle Scopus articles Loss of muscle impact factor journals Loss of muscle Scopus journals Loss of muscle PubMed journals Loss of muscle medical journals Loss of muscle free journals Loss of muscle best journals Loss of muscle top journals Loss of muscle free medical journals Loss of muscle famous journals Loss of muscle Google Scholar indexed journals Physical exercise articles Physical exercise Research articles Physical exercise review articles Physical exercise PubMed articles Physical exercise PubMed Central articles Physical exercise 2023 articles Physical exercise 2024 articles Physical exercise Scopus articles Physical exercise impact factor journals Physical exercise Scopus journals Physical exercise PubMed journals Physical exercise medical journals Physical exercise free journals Physical exercise best journals Physical exercise top journals Physical exercise free medical journals Physical exercise famous journals Physical exercise Google Scholar indexed journals

Article Details

1. Introduction

As Complaints related to work is a major problem for workers and employers around the world. It depends on the type of work. Lower Back Pain (LBP) is a common problem suffered by many workers [1]. Back pain is a physical disability that has a serious impact on Western society. It is a burden to individual patients and an additional cost to society through lost jobs and health care costs [2]. This study was conducted to identify the prevalence and risk factors for back pain among pharmaceutical company employees. As well as examining the scope of these issues. Back pain is a familiar problem affecting both genders and most age groups, with approximately 1 in 4 adults seeking help within 6 months. This leads to direct and indirect costs, such as economic, occupational, and social. Caregiving behaviors vary according to cultural factors, pain intensity, degree of activity limitation, and the presence of comorbidities. Seeking medical care for back pain accounts for a significant portion of the number of cases in some primary contact areas. Recent episodes of back pain resolve in only about 1 in 3 women [3].

1.1 Occupational factors associated with an increased risk of LBP include:

Heavy physical labor, static working postures, frequent bending and twisting, mental and psychosocial. More than two-thirds of back strain is caused by lifting, pushing or pulling. The most common causes of LBP are muscle strain, vertebral compression fractures, spinal stenosis, disc injuries, spondylosis or spondylolisthesis and exercise programs. Back pain is a common musculoskeletal condition, acute or chronic. It can be caused by a variety of diseases and disorders that affect the lumbar spine [4]. Obesity and back pain are generally thought to be related. However, scientific evidence for this relationship is sparse and sometimes conflicting [5].

Signs and symptoms of LBP include pain, numbness, tingling, burning, firmness, stiffness, reduced range of motion, deformity, reduced functional strength and loss of muscle activity. Overweight people are more likely to seek medical attention for back muscle and joint problems [7]. Not only does it mean a lower aspect of life for individuals, but it also means lower labor production due to disability, absenteeism and early retirement. In addition, rising healthcare costs are corresponding with back pain [8].

2. Methodology

A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Pharmaceutical Company in Dhaka. The duration of the period from 10th October 2019 to 10th January 2020. Interview was done by standard questionnaire containing extremely simple and well-structured question. Most of the questions were close-ended and semi structured and few were mixed and open-ended questions. It preserves confidentiality and limits risk of providing expected answers. Structured questionnaire containing items to elicit socio-demographic information (age, residence, marital status, monthly income, education etc.), modalities of treatment currently receiving, relevant information about co-occurring physical illness. After collection of data, all interviewed questionnaire were checked for its completeness, and internal consistency to exclude missing or inconsistent data and those were discarded. Then the data were analyzed by using the software named SPSS 20. A total of 349 questionnaires were analyzed.

3. Results

Table 1 shows the distribution of socio-demographic profile (n=349). The respondents were grouped into four categories (≤30), (31-40), (41-50), (>50). Here according to age distribution, 79(22.6%) were (≤30) years, 134(38.4%) were (31-40) years, 89(25.5%) were (41-50) years, 47(13.5%) were >50 years age group. According to sex 231(66.2) were male and 118(33.8) were female. Among the participants 92.3% were Muslim, 6.9% were Hindu and only 0.9% were Christian. Most of them- 169(48.4%) have 3-4 family members, 107(30.7%) have 1-3 family members and 73(20.9%) have >4 members in their house. According to family history, 158(45.3%) gave positive family history of low back pain and rest of them responded negatively.




Age in years






























How many people living in the house










Family history of low back pain







Table 1: Distribution of the according to socio-demographic profile (n=349).

Table 2 demonstrated the occupational distribution of the Pharmaceutical staffs. According to occupation 45.27% were MPO, 13.47% were Area manager, 9.74% Regional manager, 29% were Deputy Manager, 6.02% were Assistant General Manager, 3.15% were General Manager, 1.7% were Managing director, 8.30% were Executive and 3.43% were in other occupation.



Percentage (%)

Medical representative (MPO)



Area manager



Regional manager



Deputy Manager



Assistant General Manager 



General Manager



Managing director









Table 2: Occupational distribution of the study subjects (n=349).

Table 3 demonstrated the association of physical and psychological factor and low back pain (n=349). Out of 349 respondents, 149 (94.3%) stuffs are suffering from low back pain who does not perform physical exercise regularly and 9(5.7%) have LBP although they do physical exercise. According to daily sleeping hour 62(39.2%) staff suffering from LBP who sleeps ≤8 hours at night and 96(60.8%) had LBP who sleeps >8 hours. More than two third of the participants were satisfied with their job and there was no significant relation of LBP with Job satisfaction and job stress level at work.

Associated factor


Low Back Pain









Physical factor


Do you perform physical exercise regularly














What is your daily sleeping hours














Psychological factor


Are you satisfied with your work














What is the job stress level at your work




















Table 3: Association of physical and psychological factor and low back pain (n=349).

Body Mass Index


Low back pain









Underweight  (<18.5)






Normal weight (18.5-24.9)






Over weight (25-29.9)






Obese (≥30)






Table 4: Association of body mass index and low back pain (n=349).

Table 4 demonstrated the association of body mass index and low back pain (n=349). According to BMI 46 staff had underweight, 93 had normal weight, 122 had over weight and 88 staffs were fall in obese group. Over weight (25-29.9) and obese (≥30) group people are at higher risk of Low Back Pain (LBP).

4. Discussion

Low Back Pain (LBP) is a typical musculoskeletal disorder in both advanced and developing countries, with more than half of the world's population experiencing low back pain in their lifetime. This study aims to determine the prevalence and factors related to low back pain in the materials of pharmaceutical companies in Dhaka city. Available study results were discussed and correlated with formerly published correspondent studies.

At the same time, the prevalence of LBP (45.3%) was found to reach among pharmaceutical company employees in the population of Dhaka city. These results are persistent with Bawabi et al. [12] they found back pain in 45.2% of him. In the literature, LBP prevalence ranges from (37.3%) to (70-85%) and (60%) in scaffolds. [9-11]. In terms of gender, women report 51.2% of back pain. This is probably due to the fact that in addition to spending more time on housework and childcare, the responsibilities of employees are increasing. This finding is consistent with other studies that reached similar conclusions [12]. Other studies conducted in the United States and China have shown that back and spine disorders are more usual in female workers [10,13].

The current study exhibits a significant relationship between LBP and increasing age. Other studies have reported a significant association between LBP and older age [9].

This study shows a significant association between physical factors and back pain (P<005). In the literature to date, the association between physical activity and her LBP remains controversial. According to a study conducted in Iran [14]. Another study, Hodges reported a reduced incidence of LBP, even though there was no significant association of physical activity variables with back pain (LBP).

The study found significant associations between familial factors, physical factors, psychological factors, medical history, sleep disturbances, and low back pain (P<0.05). Several studies have been reported that are consistent with previous studies on the effects of familial factors on her LBP [10]. Detailed descriptions of study populations, especially occupational factors, can enhance the validity of population assessments. Activities such as correcting bad posture, splitting work hours, taking time off when in pain or discomfort, and changing jobs within traffic areas lead to healthy living and upgrade performance levels of pharmaceutical staffs.

This study shows that there is a significant difference in mean BMI among people with back pain. This indicates that overweight and obese people are at higher risk of low back pain (LBP). The relationship between BMI and LBP is controversial, with several studies showing similar findings. [14,9] However, others found that neither height nor weight were significantly associated with the risk of developing LBP [13].

In the current study, the prevalence of LBP among office workers was high, with one article reporting prevalence as high as 62%, while the other three reported less than 20%. LBP prevalence among manual workers was independent of job classification. These studies reporting point prevalence of LBP. Most of the studies report on the prevalence of LBP in a wide range of occupations. In addition to occupational characteristics, they sought to assess other factors such as age, gender, history of accidents and trauma, job satisfaction, marital status, education level, stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and body mass index [15].

In the current study, more than two-thirds of participants were satisfied with their jobs, and no significant association was found between LBP and job satisfaction. Therefore, the results of this study are in good agreement with those of other studies [12], although another study found that people with LBP had mild to moderate job satisfaction was found [16]. The study began with no association between work experience and LBP. A previous study found that more years in practice increased her risk of LBP, and duration of employment appeared to be significantly associated with the prevalence of LBP [16].

Another study reported that psychological parameters such as stressful life, respect at work, satisfactory career advancement, and fear of changing jobs due to back pain were significantly associated with his LBP [12]. This shows the impact of mental state on physical health. These results are consistent with previous research on the importance of psychological factors on LBP [10].

5. Conclusion

Preventive strategies such as maintaining weight, fairness of stress and a comfortable work environment can help reduce the incidence of LBP among staffs working in pharmaceutical company.

Limitations of the study

The present study was conducted in a very short period due to time constraints and funding limitations. The small sample size was also a limitation of the present study.


This study can serve as a pilot to a much larger research involving multiple centers that can provide a nationwide picture, validate regression models proposed in this study for future use and emphasize points to ensure better management and adherence.


The wide range of disciplines involved in prevalence and associated factors of low back pain among the staffs of a pharmaceutical company of Dhaka city research means that an Editors needs much assistance from referees in the evaluation of papers submitted for publication. I am very grateful to many colleagues for their thorough, helpful and usually prompt response to requests for their opinion and advice.



None funding sources.

Conflict of interest:

None declared.

Ethical approval:

The study was approved by the Thesis Defense Committee and was carefully evaluated. The following thesis proposal and recommended to the Dean, School of Health & Life Sciences, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh for approval..


  1. Almalki M, Alkhudhayri MH, Batarfi AA, et al. Prevalence of low back pain among medical practitioners in a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh. Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine 16 (2016): 205-209.
  2. Van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM. A cost-of-illness study of back pain in The Netherlands. Pain 62 (1995): 233-240.
  3. Kent PM Keating, JL. The epidemiology of low back pain in primary care. Chiropractic and osteopathy 13 (2005): 1-7.
  4. Kravitz L, Andrews R. Fitness and Low Back Pain [Online] (2011).
  5. Garzillo MJ, Garzillo TA. Does obesity cause low back pain?. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 17 (1994): 601-604.
  6. Office ergonomics, Ergonomics [Online]. Available: ergonomics/course/ images/03_stage/pdf/03_030.pdf (2012).
  7. Seidell JC, Bakx KC, Deurenberg P, et al. The relation between overweight and subjective health according to age, social class, slimming behavior and smoking habits in Dutch adults. American journal of public health 76 (1986): 1410-1415.
  8. Waddell G. Low back pain: a twentieth century health care enigma. Spine 21 (1996): 2820-2825.
  9. Rezaee M, Ghasemi M, Jafari NJ, et al. Low back pain and related factors among Iranian office workers. International journal of occupational hygiene 3 (2011): 23-28.
  10. Andersson GB. Epidemiological features of chronic low-back pain. The lancet. 354 (1999): 581-585.
  11. Elders LA, Burdorf A. Interrelations of risk factors and low back pain in scaffolders. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 58 (2001): 597-603.
  12. Bawab W, ISMAIL K, AWADA S, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among office workers in lebanon. International Journal of Occupational Hygiene 7 (2015): 45-52.
  13. Yip YB, Ho S, Chan SG. Identifying risk factors for low back pain (LBP) in Chinese middle-aged women: a case-control study. Health care for women international 25 (2004): 358-369.
  14. Mendelek F, Kheir RB, Caby I, et al. On the quantitative relationships between individual/occupational risk factors and low back pain prevalence using nonparametric approaches. Joint Bone Spine 78 (2011): 619-624.
  15. Mehrdad R, Shams-Hosseini NS, Aghdaei S, et al. Prevalence of low back pain in health care workers and comparison with other occupational categories in Iran: a systematic review. Iranian journal of medical sciences 41 (2016): 467-478.
  16. Bandpei MA, Ehsani F, Behtash H, et al. Occupational low back pain in primary and high school teachers: prevalence and associated factors. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 37 (2014): 702-728.

© 2016-2024, Copyrights Fortune Journals. All Rights Reserved