Demography of cat bite
Navin Kumar Devaraj*
Family Medicine Specialist Department of Family Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia
*Corresponding Author: Navin Kumar Devaraj, Family Medicine Specialist Department of Family Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra, Malaysia.
Received: 15 January 2023; Accepted: 05 February 2023; Published: 03 April 2023
Citation: Navin Kumar Devaraj, Demography of cat bite. Fortune Journal of Rheumatology 5 (2023): 05-06.Share at Facebook
The exact prevalence of animal bites in Malaysia, especially domestic animal, is largely unknown. Cat bites is a common problem seen due to a large number of cat lover all across Malaysia. Cat possesses very sharp teeth that can lead to deep infections up to the bone. Statistics have shown that animal bites accounts for significant 1-2 % of emergency hospital visits. Therefore, knowledge of the exact prevalence and common pathogens brought upon this animal bites, namely cat bites are important in overall management of this common problem to prevent serious infection.
Musculoskeletal; Cat bite; Dangers
The exact prevalence of animal bites in Malaysia, especially domestic animal, is largely unknown. Cat bites is a common problem seen due to a large number of cat lover all across Malaysia. Cat possesses very sharp teeth that can lead to deep infections up to the bone.
Statistics have shown that animal bites accounts for significant 1-2 % of emergency hospital visits in United States, a country with a high number of pet lovers . Although dog bites are much more common, the prevalence of cat bites may actually account up to 25% of the actual dog bite numbers [2-4].
The most common pathogen implicated in cat bite infections is mainly Pasteurella multocida [5,6]. It is found in the oral cavity of many healthy cats [7,8]. Although majority of cat bite infections is minors, more severe infections can cause abscess, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, osteomyelitis and even septicaemia [7,9].
The more common site for cat bites are the upper limbs, namely the hands, and the wrists [2,10]. Treatment option ranges from expectant management to use of oral or intravenous antibiotics, and in more severe cases, the use of surgical manoeuvres . Studies have shown the use of early prophylactic antibiotic use will decrease the infection rates following cat bites from 28% to 2% . However, predicting which patients will need intravenous antibiotics and surgery remains difficult, although 30-40% of patients with cat bites will need hospitalization [5,7,12]. Therefore, knowledge of the exact prevalence and common pathogens brought upon this animal bites, namely cat bites is important in overall management to prevent progression to devastating serious infection.
- Babovic N, Cayci C, Carlsen BT. Cat bite infections of the hand: assessment of morbidity and predictors of severe infection. The Journal of hand surgery 39 (2014): 286-290.
- Goldstein EJC. Bite wounds and infection. Clin Infect Dis 14 (1992): 633-640.
- Wiley JF. II. Mammalian bites. Review of evaluation and management. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 29 (1990): 283-287.
- Goldstein EJC. Management of human and animal bite wounds. J Am Acad Dermatol 21 (1989): 1275-1279.
- Mitnovetski S, Kimble F. Cat bites of the hand. ANZ J Surg 74 (2004): 859-862.
- Kwo S, Agarwal JP, Meletiou S. Current treatment of cat bites to the hand and wrist. J Hand Surg Am 36 (2011): 152-153.
- Weber DJ, Wolfson JS, Swartz MN, et al. Pasturella multocida infections. Report of 34 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 63 (1984): 133-154.
- Arons MS, Fernando L, Polayes IM. Pasteurella multocida—the major cause of hand infections following domestic animal bites. J Hand Surg Am 7 (1982): 47-52.
- Chodakewitz J, Bia FJ. Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis from a cat bite. Yale J Biol Med 61 (1988): 513-518
- Dire DJ. Cat bite wounds: risk factors for infection. Ann Emerg Med20 (1991): 973-979
- Medeiros I, Saconato H. Antibiotic prophylaxis for mammalian bites (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, Issue 2. Oxford: Update Software (2003).
- Griego RD, Rosen T, Orengo IF, et al. Dog, cat, and human bites: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol33 (1995): 1019-1029.