Therapeutic and Diagnostic Challenge of Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Author(s): Alpha Boubacar Conte, Solène Nyingone, Sofia Jayi, Hadiza Moutari Soule, Fatima Zohra Fdili Alaoui, Hikmat Chaara, Moulay Abdelilah Melhouf

Idiopathic Granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a chronic benign inflammatory disease of the breast that may mimic breast cancer. It is most common in parous young fertile women, although it can occur in nulliparous. It affects mostly women of childbearing age with a history of breastfeeding. IGM is an idiopathic disease due to the influence of some environmental factors in genetically predisposed subjects. Several pathogenic hypothesis have been proposed in the last years (autoimmune, hormonal, infective genesis). Because the clinical presentation can mimic infectious mastitis or inflammatory carcinoma, the disease course is often protracted. The diagnosis is made by histopathology. Ultrasound, mammography, and magnetic resonance imaging are not specific; however, ultrasound and mammography should be done to exclude other pathologies. There is no universal treatment of GM. We report in this manuscript one case of IGM through which we mention a therapeutic and diagnostic challenge with a brief review of the literature. The management was successful despite the long way made by the patient before she acceded to a proper treatment.

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