Stem Cell Therapy: A Green Expectation of Advanced Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment in Bangladesh

Author(s): Mohiuddin AKM, Lewis P, Mia Md. Manik, Rahman Iqram, Anowar Raihan

Background: Treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is very challenging. Sometimes, it can be resistant to medications, procedures, and surgery. Surgery may not be an option for some patients due to old age, obesity, and co-morbidities. On the other hand, stem cell therapy is an effective method to regenerate damaged tissue in regenerative medicine because adult stem cells are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multi-potent by nature. Their principal role is to maintain tissue homeostasis. Due to their multi-potent character, stem cells can be activated to proliferate and differentiate into the required types of cells upon cell loss or injury to the tissue. This clinical study has demonstrated the structural and functional regeneration capabilities of Small Blood Stem Cells (SBSC) derived from autologous peripheral blood and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to regenerate cartilage damage. Aim of the study: This study has been conducted to observe the effectiveness of autologous adult stem cell therapy on pain, function, and severity in OA Knee for Bangladeshi patients.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Regenerative Orthopedics in Surecell Medical [BD] Ltd, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study duration was two years, from July 2021 to June 2023. A total of 100 patients were enrolled and analyzed in this study. All of them were present till the end of the treatment. Before all actions, patients were taken to a general practitioner, who noted their medical history and referred them to an orthopedic surgeon. The orthopedic surgeon selected osteoarthritis knee patients for stem cell therapy. Pre-treatment and post-treatment osteoarthritis knee conditions were measured using the (WOMAC) score. The post-treatment outcome has been compared based on the pre-treatment WOMAC score by the descriptive data analysis system of SPSS software.

Result: The study analyzes a population's age, BMI, sex distribution, and co-morbidities. The majority (68%) of patients are aged 51-70, with a mean age of 64.47±8.40. The mean BMI is 31.04±5.55. Females constitute 84% of the population. Pre-treatment WOMAC score averages 51.8±10.42, dropping to 22.78±10.04 at 90 days post-treatment and 18.14±7.20 at 180 days. Co-morbidity rates include 45.00% for DM, 38.00% for HTN, 12.00% for Cardiac, 4.00% for renal, 2.00% for breast cancer, and 26.00% with no co-morbidities. These findings comprehensively overview the study population's demographics, health outcomes, and co-existing conditions.

Conclusion: The study, following detailed data analysis, affirms the safety and efficacy of administering fresh, autologous small blood stem cells and ADSCs, for treating advanced osteoarthritis knee. This gradual improvement is not an immediate remedy for pain relief, stiffness, or recovery. Despite a few limitations, Stem cell therapy offers a sustainable and clinically significant outcome for joint function in elderly patients with Osteoarthritis in Bangladesh, surpassing conventional treatments in safety and efficacy.

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