Secondhand Cigarette Smoke Exposure Pattern, Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Harm amongst Non-Smokers in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria
Author(s): Aminu Umar Kaoje, Ahmed Mohammed Ismaila, Oloyede Abdulhafiz, Garba Shefiullahi, Yusuf Rifkat, Abubakar Bilkisu Gulma, Raji Ismail Abdullateef, Abubakar Auwal Usman, UM Ango
Background: Cigarette smoke contains many carcinogens, and the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are shared and suffered by the passive non-smokers.
Objective: To assess secondhand smoke exposure pattern and knowledge, attitude and perception of exposure harm among non-Smokers in Sokoto metropolis.
Material and Methods: We conducted a population-based descriptive cross-sectional study among 400 non-smokers. We used a two-stage sampling technique to select respondents and an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data through personal interview. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Mean, and standard deviation was calculated for continuous data, frequency and percentage for categorical data and multiple dichotomy analysis for variables where multiple responses were allowed.
Results:Respondents’ mean age was 44.3 ± 4.7 years. Most, 299 (74.8%) were male, and less than half, 169 (42.5%), had tertiary education. More than half, 278 (69.4%) have had different form and level of exposure to secondhand smoke. A majority, 252 (63.0%) demonstrated good knowledge of exposure harm towards secondhand smoke. Lungs and heart were the most frequently mentioned organs affected by cigarette smoke, while Lung cancer and exacerbation of asthmatic attack were the most frequently cited ailment following exposure. Majority, 262 (65.4%), expressed appropriate attitude and perception to exposure harms, as 261 (68.1%) of the respondents perceived that breathing even small amount can be dangerous.
Conclusion: Although many demonstrated good knowledge and expressed appropriate attitudes and perception to exposure harm of secondhand smoke, a large number experienced moderate to heavy exposure. Smoking in public places is a prevalent practice, therefore we recommend that the government should ensure that the law prohib