Phytochemical Profiles of Albizia coriaria, Azadirachta indica, and Tylosema fassoglensis Used in the Management of Cancers in Elgon Sub-Region

Author(s): Ali Kudamba , Hussein M. Kafeero, Muhammad Lubowa , Shaban A. Okurut, Hakim Nsubuga, Twaha Abiti, Joweria Kayendeke, Abdul Walusansa and Jamilu E. Ssenku

Background: Cancer is one of the serious health burdens in the 21st century with a steady rise in cases and deaths. The current interventions used in cancer management are chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery, but are ineffective, and also marred with several shortcomings. Preliminary studies indicated that residents in the Elgon sub-region use Albizia coriaria, Azadirachta indica & Tylosema fassoglensis as alternative cancer therapies but there is a paucity of data on their phytochemical profiles as a basis of scientific back-up. Therefore, our study documented the phytochemistry of Albizia coriaria, Azadirachta indica & Tylosema fassoglensis.

Materials & Methods: We adopted an experimental study design. The collected plant materials were cleaned, air dried, ground into a powder, and extracted by aqueous and ethanol. Ultraviolet spectrometry and gravimetry methods were used to determine the phytochemical profiles and data was analyzed with MedCalc version 20.008.

Result: The current study revealed that the three plant species exhibited varied phytochemical constituents. The highest mean concentrations were 10174, 748, 17751 & 8060 mg/100ml for polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids respectively. Flavonoids from root extracts of Tylosema fassoglensis and Albizia coriaria were insignificant (P= 0.1060 & P= 0.4983) respectively and the rest of the phytochemical compositions significantly (P < 0.0001) varied.

Conclusions: The phytochemical profiles of plant species in the current study exhibited higher concentrations than the same species harvested in different parts of Uganda. Therefore, there is a need to carry out a study on the isolation & characterization of the phytochemical constituents; efficacy tests on anticancer activity against cancer cell-line, and safety in animal models.

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