Factors Influencing Willingness to Comply with Public Health Measures for COVID-19 among Incoming air Travelers into Nigeria from high-risk Countries: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

Author(s): Ifeoma Sophia Usuwa, Chukwuma David Umeokonkwo, Muhammad Shakir Balogun, Christian Obasi Akpa, Ismail Hadi Zubairu, Ugochukwu Chinedu Osigwe, Abdulhakeem Abayomi Olorukooba, Chukwuemeka Steve Oguanuo, Eniola Bamgboye, Pius Ikenna Ononigwe, Arhyel Malgwi, Chibuike Patrick Enumah, Kelly Elimian, Abdullai Lawal Iyanda, Morenike Alex-Okoh, John Oladejo, Patrick Nguku, Chikwe Ihekweazu

Background: Complying with guidelines established to control COVID-19 pandemic is critical to the successful outcome of the response. We assessed the willingness of non-symptomatic incoming international air travelers into Nigeria to comply with COVID-19 public health measures upon arrival and identified the factors influencing them- March 2020.

Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 500 incoming international air travelers involving 17 nationals across four major international airports in Nigeria using a pre-tested self-administered electronic questionnaire. We estimated the proportions and determined predictors of participants’ willingness to comply with the COVID-19 preventive measures. Predictors were examined using multiple logistic regression at 5% level of significance.

Results: Majority (83%) were extremely/very willing to comply with public health guidelines. Perception of severity was a significant predictor of their willingness to stay at home for 14 days upon arrival (AOR: 6.82, 95 CI%: 1.19-24.45). Self -efficacy towards observing self for COVID-19 symptoms was a significant predictor of willingness to stay at home for 14 days (AOR: 9.37, 95% CI: 3.38-25.97), willingness to observe self for symptoms (AOR: 5.16, 95% CI 1.77-14.93), and willingness to call of national COVID-19 numbers if symptoms develop (AOR: 4.47, 95% CI: 1.19-16.81). Good pre-arrival COVID-19 preventive practices was a significant predictor of willingness to avoid contact with others within the first 14 days on arrival.

Conclusion: There is a need to improve risk communication interventions against COVID-19 for international air travelers particularly enhancing self-efficacy to improve their compliance towards public health measures

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