Evaluation of Ceftriaxone Residue in Cow Milk and its Toxicity on Danio rerio
Author(s): Jayanta Chowdhury, Riya Mukherjee, Debanjan Dutta, Tapan Kumar Mandal, Tarakdas Basu, Sandhimita Mondal
Ceftriaxone (CEFT), a widely used broad-spectrum beta -lactam cephalosporin antibiotic, is used to treat bovine mastitis, caused by a variety of bacteria. If used injudiciously, this antibiotic leaves a residue that persists after pasteurization. Antibiotic residue contamination occurs when antibiotic residue exceeds its Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). This has negative impacts on both public health and the environment. The aim of a recent study was to determine the concentration of ceftriaxone residue (CEFTR) in raw and pasteurized mastitis cow milk, and its role in developmental toxicity and genotoxicity in the zebra fish model. The CEFTR concentrations in raw and pasteurized milk were several times higher than CEFT's MRL. CEFTR showed a decrease in body length and yolk sac region of zebra fish larvae 7-amino cephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), C3 and C7 are the cephalosporin components produced by the degradation of CEFT that may present in CEFTR, and have an impact on the zebra fish embryo in this stage of development. Comet Assay or Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) also exhibited highest percentage of tail DNA, and tail moment (DNA migration) that is the ultimate indicator of DNA damage by breaking DNA strands and incorporating guanine residue into the genome that ultimately damages the DNA. As a result, the CEFTR is extremely concerning for public health and the environment. The toxic effects of the CEFTR in zebra fish model have not yet been studied. This may be the first comprehensive study.