Clinical Characteristics of Patients Newly Diagnosed with Primary Open Angle Glaucoma at the Yaoundé Central Hospital-Cameroon

Author(s): Viola A Dohvoma, Stève R Ebana Mvogo, Marina Bidjogo, Caroline T Mvilongo, Marie E Akono, Marie B Nguena, Emilienne Epee, Côme Ebana Mvogo

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a tertiary hospital.

Methods: A review of the medical records of patients newly diagnosed with POAG between 1st January 2016 and 31st January 2018 was done. POAG diagnosis was based on the presence of any two of the following: elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucomatous optic nerve changes and characteristic visual field defects in the presence of a normal angle on gonioscopy. Blindness was defined as corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA) of < 0.05. Severe visual impairment was defined as CDVA <0.3 but >0.05.

Results: Amongst the 10 400 new patients seen during the study period, 96 were diagnosed with POAG (0.92%). The male: female sex ratio was 1.5. The mean age was 49.1 ± 19.9 years. Family history of glaucoma was present in 11 patients (11.46%). The mean cup/disc ratio was 0.6 ± 0.2. Glaucomarelated blindness was unilateral in 5.2% of patients (n=5). No patient had bilateral blindness. Unilateral J Ophthalmol Res 2019; 2 (3): 050-056 DOI: 10.26502/fjor.2644-00240011 Journal of Ophthalmology and Research 2 and bilateral severe visual impairment were present respectively in 10.42% and 33.33% of cases.

 Conclusion: Late presentation is common in POAG with severe cupping and moderate to advanced visual field defects. Unilateral blindness or severe visual impairment is present in 38.5% of cases. Information and screening should be put in place to encourage early diagnosis which will reduce the burden of glaucoma-related blindness.

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