Bronchial Asthma and Its Associated Risk Factors Among Adults with Thyroid Nodules

Author(s): Imad R Musa

Background: Bronchial asthma (BA) and thyroid nodules (TNs) are growing global health challenges. The present study thus aimed to investigate the prevalence of BA and its associated risk factors among adults with TNs in the eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at the Royal Commission Hospital in eastern KSA from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2021. The participants’ sociodemographic characteristics were assessed, and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify potential risk factors for patients with BA.

Results: A total of 391 adult participants with TNs were enrolled in this study, with a median (IQR) age of 46.00 (20.0) years. The majority of participants were female (84.9%), and the median (IQR) body mass index (BMI) was 30.27 (7.71) kg/m2. The prevalence of BA among adult patients with TNs was 7.9%. A univariate analysis revealed a significant association between BA in these patients and age, platelet count (PLTc), neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, mean platelet volume, haematocrit, free triiodothyronine (FT3), low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein. However, there was no significant association between BA and gender, BMI, thyroid status, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), white blood cell count, haemoglobin, red cell distribution width (RDW), total cholesterol, triglyceride, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4). Increased age (AOR = 1.046, 95% CI = 1.015-1.079), higher platelet count (AOR = 1.006, 95% CI 1.002-1.011), lower lymphocyte count (AOR = 0.492, 95% CI = 0.275-0.881) and elevated FT3 (AOR = 1.242, 95% CI = 1.043-1.480) were significantly associated with BA.

Conclusion: A relatively higher prevalence of BA was observed among adult patients with TNs compared to the general population in eastern KSA. Older age, elevated FT3, a higher PLTc and lower lymphocyte count were significantly associated with BA.

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