Behavioral, Demographic, and Clinical Determinants of HIV Status in Zambian Women
Author(s): Debebe Gebreyohannes, Ji Shen, Kelley Sams
The rate of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection shows a diminishing trend globally, but Sub-Saharan Africa faces an increasing intensity of mortality, morbidity, and burden of HIV. In Zambian women specifically, the intertwined behavioral, demographic, and clinical determinants have caused the incidence of infections. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the association between demographic, behavioral, and clinical determinants with HIV serostatus in Zambian women. Using the conceptual framework of the World Health Organization’s Commission for Social Determinants of Health and the multivariate analysis of variance quantitative method, this study examined Zambian Demographic Health Survey data for Zambian women between two age groups (adolescents and adults). The findings showed statistically significant results in the association between HIV serostatus and self-perceived HIV risk for both groups and the association between education and HIV serostatus among women in both groups (p ≤.027). However, no statistically significant association existed between behavioral, demographic, and clinical determinants of HIV serostatus (p≤796). The findings imply the need to conduct prospective studies on such determinants to curb HIV incidence rates and improve women's community health in Africa.