Association Between Precision Nutrition and Microbiome for Targeting Cardiometabolic Diseases, Inflammation and Bone Metabolism
Author(s): Giuseppe Merra, Annunziata Capacci, Giuseppe Cenname, Ernesto Esposito, Maria Dri, Laura Di Renzo, Marco Marchetti
Since ancient times, it is believed that food has a profound influence on the state of health / disease of an individual. To translate genetic information into evidence-based nutritional recommendations it is appropriate to make a critical analysis of the interactions of polymorphisms with nutrition and health. The most recent discoveries on the human genome provide us the tools and the basis for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which individual genes, or combinations thereof, respond to changes in diet and lifestyle. Nutrigenetics concerns the identification of genetic variations in humans that cause differences in the phenotypic response to molecules introduced with the diet, with the aim of assessing the risks and benefits for the individual of certain components of the diet. In the medical field, the new knowledge on the Human Genome has allowed the consolidation of a new molecular dimension of medicine, in particular of a sector defined as "Predictive Medicine", that is a medicine, which, based on the information obtainable from the genetic constitution of an individual, can anticipate an estimate of the latter's risk of developing a given disease during the course of life. In summary, development of personalized nutrition based on the features of the microbiome is currently being attempted.