Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Activity of Viphyllin A Standardized Extract of β-Caryophyllene from Piper Nigrum L (Piperaceae) and its Associated Mechanisms in Mouse Macrophage Cells and Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells
Author(s): Kuluvar Gouthamchandra, Sudeep Heggar Venkataramana, Anusha Sathish, Amritharaj, Lingaraju HB, Naveen Puttaswamy, Shyam Prasad Kodimule
Oxidative stress breeds various chronic lifestyle ailments including inflammatory conditions and neurodegenerative diseases. β-caryophyllene natural bicyclic sesquiterpene, obtained from various plants sources found to be effective against inflammation and neuroprotection. In this study, we have evaluated the protective effect of Viphyllin, a standardized extract of β-caryophyllene from black pepper against inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in RAW264.7 macrophage cells and mechanisms involved in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- challenged oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Viphyllin demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity by subsiding the release of the pro-inflammatory intermediaries like NO, cytokines, interleukins, and protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, Viphyllin suppressed the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation. On the other hand, Viphyllin showed neuroprotective effect against neuronal oxidative damage caused by H2O2. Viphyllin lessened the expression B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (BAX), cleaved caspase-9, and PARP-1 proteins associated with apoptosis. Our findings indicate that Viphyllin ameliorated LPS-mediated inflammation in macrophages by regulating inflammation and Viphyllin exerted remarkable anti apoptotic effect against neuronal damage challenged by H2O2. Altogether, Viphyllin could be potential functional food ingredient for inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.