A Review of the Recent Findings on Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast (DCIS)

Author(s): Deniz Erarslan, Fernando Schmitt

Ductal Carcinoma in Situ is an entity which bears the risk of progression into Invasive Breast Carcinoma of No Special Type (IBC of NST). Evidence suggests that the malignant potential is already present in the non invasive period. Currently, the tumor microenvironment interaction has gained importance since the genetic and translational modifications of the DCIS lesion itself does not inform about the probability of malignancy sufficient for the risk stratification concerning the prognosis of the entity. Recent evidence underlines the interaction of the surrounding cells as affecting the fate of DCIS. Reproducibility of a diagnosis and grading of DCIS is another problem which is tried to be overcome with the incorporation of deep learning convolutional neural network analyses and various gene expression assays. This summarizes the findings of the recent studies to elucidate the transition of DCIS to IBC of NST regarding the histopathology, molecular biology while reflecting on the current prognostic data of DCIS with the treatment methods that are in application.

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