A Review of Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate and its Use in Primary Osteoarthritis of the Knee

Author(s): Justin J Ernat, Ingrid K Stake, Naomasa Fukase, Robert A Waltz, Sudheer Ravuri, Johnny Huard

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint is the most common chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by cartilage deterioration and inflammation. Conservative management to prevent cartilage degradation and future conversion to joint replacement has been the focus of attention, with a number of orthobiologics being applied clinically. Among them, bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) has been growing in popularity as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and growth factors with regenerative capacity as well as anti-inflammatory properties. As it pertains to OA, the anti-inflammatory and regenerative effects of BMAC are promising, although, continued research and standardization of treatment are still necessary. This article aims to provide a review of the characteristics of BMAC from a regenerative medicine perspective and provide a current summary of the preclinical and clinical results of BMAC when utilized to treat OA of the knee joint.

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